## Gate 2007-IT

 Question 1
Suppose there are two coins. The first coin gives heads with probability 5/8 when tossed, while the second coin gives heads with probability 1/4. One of the two coins is picked up at random with equal probability and tossed. What is the probability of obtaining heads ?
 A 7/8 B 1/2 C 7/16 D 5/32
Engineering-Mathematics       Probability
Question 1 Explanation:
Each coin has equal probability to pick i.e., 1/2.
The probability of obtaining heads
= (1/2)(5/8) + (1/2)(1/4)
= (5/16) + (1/8)
= 7/16
 Question 2
 A B C D Engineering-Mathematics       Linear-Algebra
Question 2 Explanation: Question 3
Consider a weighted undirected graph with positive edge weights and let uv be an edge in the graph. It is known that the shortest path from the source vertex s to u has weight 53 and the shortest path from s to v has weight 65. Which one of the following statements is always true?
 A weight (u, v) < 12 B weight (u, v) ≤ 12 C weight (u, v) > 12 D weight (u, v) ≥ 12
Algorithms        Shortest Path
Question 3 Explanation:
Correct answer will be,
weight (u,v) ≥ 12
Lets check other options,
A) If the weight (u,v) < 12
Minimum weight of (s,v)
= weight of (s,v) + weight of (u,v)
= 53 + (<12)
= less than 65, which is not possible because shortest path from s to v has weight 65.
Similarly, we can check for option (B) and (C).
 Question 4
In the Spiral model of software development, the primary determinant in selecting activities in each iteration is
 A Iteration size B Cost C Adopted process such as Rational Unified Process or Extreme Programming D Risk
Question 4 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 5
Which of the following systems is a most likely candidate example of a pipe and filter architecture ?
 A Expert system B DB repository C Aircraft flight controller D Signal processing
Question 5 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 6
A processor takes 12 cycles to complete an instruction I. The corresponding pipelined processor uses 6 stages with the execution times of 3, 2, 5, 4, 6 and 2 cycles respectively. What is the asymptotic speedup assuming that a very large number of instructions are to be executed?
 A 1.83 B 2 C 3 D 6
Computer-Organization       Pipelining
Question 6 Explanation:
Let there be n instructions.
For a non-pipelined processor each instruction takes 12 cycles.
So for n instructions total execution time be 12 × n = 12n
For a pipelined processor each instruction takes
max (3, 2, 5, 4, 6, 2) =6
So for n instructions total execution time be,
(1×6 + (n-1) × 1) × 6
= (6 + n - 1) × 6
= (5 + n) × 6
= 30 + 6n So, if n is very large, Question 7
Which of the following input sequences for a cross-coupled R-S flip-flop realized with two NAND gates may lead to an oscillation?
 A 11, 00 B 01, 10 C 10, 01 D 00, 11
Digital-Logic-Design       Sequential-Circuits
Question 7 Explanation:
RS slip-flop using NAND gates.
So, 00 input cause indeterminate state which may lead to oscillation.
 Question 8
 A X1 = b, X2 = 0, X3 = a B X1 = b, X2 = 1, X3 = b C X1 = a, X2 = b, X3 = 1 D X1 = a, X2 = 0, X3 = b
Digital-Logic-Design       Multiplexer
Question 8 Explanation:
F = (bX1' + aX1)X3 + X2X3'
If we put
X1 = b
X2 = 0
X3 = a
Then we get,
F = ab
 Question 9
Consider an ambiguous grammar G and its disambiguated version D. Let the language recognized by the two grammars be denoted by L(G) and L(D) respectively. Which one of the following is true ?
 A L (D) ⊂ L (G) B L (D) ⊃ L (G) C L (D) = L (G) D L (D) is empty
Compiler-Design       Grammar
Question 9 Explanation:
By changing the corresponding grammar, the language will not be changed.
For example, by converting NFA to DFA language will not be changed.
 Question 10
 A (i) is false and (ii) is true B Both (i) and (ii) are false C (i) is true and (ii) is false D Both (i) and (ii) are true
Operating-Systems       Process-Synchronization
Question 10 Explanation:
Both the processes run concurrently if they run concurrently till the execution then there is no deadlock.
 Question 11
 A 16 B 19 C 20 D 37
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 11 Explanation:
At t = 0 At t = 8 At t = 10 At t = 11 J7 can be finished at t = 19.
 Question 12
 A 0 B 4 C 7 D 8
Operating-Systems       Virtual Memory
Question 12 Explanation:
0100 - Page fault, address till 199 in memory
0200 - Page fault, address till 299 in memory
0430 - Page fault, address till 529 in memory
0499 - No page fault
0510 - No page fault
0530 - Page fault, address till 629 in memory
0560 - No page fault.
0120 - Page fault, address till 219 in memory
0220 - Page fault, address till 319 in memory
0240 - No page fault
0260 - No page fault
0320 - Page fault, address till 419 in memory
0410 - No page fault
So, total page faults = 7.
 Question 13
 A (i) is false, but (ii) and (iii) are true B (i) and (iii) are false, but (ii) is title C (i) and (ii) are false, but (iii) is true D (i), (ii) and (iii) are false
Computer-Networks       TCP
Question 13 Explanation:
Statement-I: It is False.
The timeout value cannot be fixed for entire duration as it will turn timer to static timer, we need dynamic timer for timeout.
Statement-II: It is True.
Basic algorithm, Jacobson's algorithm, Karl's modification; these three algorithms are to be appropriate to RTT estimation algorithm used to set timeout value dynamically.
Statement-III: It is False.
Because timeout value is set to twice the propagation delay in data link layer where hop to hop distance is known, not in TCP layer.
 Question 14

Consider a TCP connection in a state where there are no outstanding ACKs. The sender sends two segments back to back. The sequence numbers of the first and second segments are 230 and 290 respectively. The first segment was lost, but the second segment was received correctly by the receiver. Let X be the amount of data carried in the first segment (in bytes), and Y be the ACK number sent by the receiver. The values of X and Y (in that order) are

 A 60 and 290 B 230 and 291 C 60 and 231 D 60 and 230
Computer-Networks       TCP
Question 14 Explanation:
In the 1st segment data is from byte number 230 to byte number 289, that is 60 bytes. As 1st segment is lost, so TCP will send ACK for the next-in-order segment receiver is to be expecting. So, it will be for 230.
 Question 15
 A Both are false B Statement (i) is true and the other is false C Statement (ii) is true and the other is false D Both are true
Computer-Networks       Network-Security
Question 15 Explanation:
i) Hash function is many to one function. It is not one-one (or) injective.
ii) It uses the P-Box permutation.
Statement-I is false, II is true.
 Question 16
The minimum positive integer p such that 3p modulo 17 = 1 is
 A 5 B 8 C 12 D 16
Engineering-Mathematics       Numerical-Methods
Question 16 Explanation:
According to Fermat's little theorem,
ap-1 mod p = 1
Here, p = 17
So, p-1 = 16 is the answer.
 Question 17
Exponentiation is a heavily used operation in public key cryptography. Which of the following options is the tightest upper bound on the number of multiplications required to compute bn mod m,0≤b,n≤m ?
 A B C D Algorithms        Time-Complexity
Question 17 Explanation:
In this we need to compute like Recurrence relation T(n) = T(n/2) + O(1)
T(n) = O(log n)
 Question 18

A firewall is to be configured to allow hosts in a private network to freely open TCP connections and send packets on open connections. However, it will only allow external hosts to send packets on existing open TCP connections or connections that are being opened (by internal hosts) but not allow them to open TCP connections to hosts in the private network. To achieve this the minimum capability of the firewall should be that of

 A A combinational circuit B A finite automaton C A pushdown automaton with one stack D A pushdown automaton with two stacks
Computer-Networks       TCP
Question 18 Explanation:
Pushdown automata with two stacks which is the Turing machine.
Turing machine can do everything as the normal computer can do, so firewall can be created by the TM.
 Question 19
 A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3
Question 19 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 20
 A The Title and Content elements B The Content and TOC elements C The Title and TOC elements D The Title, Content and TOC elements
Question 20 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 21
Which one of these first-order logic formula is valid?
 A ∀x(P(x) ⇒ Q(x)) ⇒ (∀xP(x) ⇒ ∀xQ(x)) B ∃x(P(x) ∨ Q(x)) ⇒ (∃xP(x) ⇒ ∃xQ(x)) C ∃x(P(x) ∧ Q(x)) (∃xP(x) ∧ ∃xQ(x)) D ∀x∃y P(x, y) ⇒ ∃y∀x P(x, y)
Engineering-Mathematics       Propositional-Logic
Question 21 Explanation:
LHS = for every x, if P holds then Q holds
RHS = if P(x) holds for all x, then Q(x) holds for all x
LHS ⇒ RHS (✔)
RHS ⇒ LHS (️❌)
 Question 22
 A (iv) only B (iii) and (iv) only C (ii), (iii) and (iv) only D (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
Engineering-Mathematics       Trapezoidal Method
Question 22 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 23
 A (i) and (iii) B (ii) and (iv) C (i) and (iv) D (iii) and (iv)
Engineering-Mathematics       Sets-And-Relation
Question 23 Explanation:
For ordered pair (a, b) to be in P, each digit in starting from unit place must not be larger than the corresponding digit in b.
The given condition can be satisfied by
(iii) (145, 265) → 5 ≤ 5, 4 < 6 and 1< 2
(iv) (0, 153) → 0 < 3
 Question 24
A depth-first search is performed on a directed acyclic graph. Let d[u] denote the time at which vertex u is visited for the first time and f[u] the time at which the dfs call to the vertex u terminates. Which of the following statements is always true for all edges (u, v) in the graph ?
 A d[u] < d[v] B d[u] < f[v] C f[u] < f[v] D f[u] > f[v]
Data-Structures       Graphs
Question 24 Explanation: Option A:
d[u] Option B:
d[u] Option C:
f[u] So, option D is True.
 Question 25
What is the largest integer m such that every simple connected graph with n vertices and n edges contains at least m different spanning trees?
 A 1 B 2 C 3 D n
Algorithms        Minimum-Spanning-Tree
Question 25 Explanation:
If graph is connected and contains n vertices and n edges means there is possibility of only one cycle.
→ If we create a different spanning tree by removing one edge at a time.
→ For cycle required 3 minimum edges. So there is at least 3 spanning trees in such a graph.
 Question 26
 A Non-decreasing order of ti B Non-increasing order of wi C Non-increasing order of witi D None-increasing order of wi/ti
Operating-Systems       Process-Scheduling
Question 26 Explanation:
Like OS concept, execute job which have more completiontime in 1 sec i.e., find wi/ti for every process then arrange it in the decreasing order. So, we get complete time is minimum always.
So answer is the non-increasing order of wi/ti.
 Question 27
 A (i) and (iii) B (i) and (iv) C (ii) and (iii) D (ii) and (iv)
Programming       Programming
Question 27 Explanation:
The function can be terminated for all the values which can have factor of 2{(2-x)2 == 0}, so (i) is false and (ii) is true.
→ Let n=3, then it is terminated in 2nd iteration.
→ Let n=5, then sequence is 5→14→7→20→10 and it will repeat.
→ Any number with factor 5 and 2 leads to infinite recursion.
So, (iv) is True and (iii) is False.
 Question 28
Consider a hash function that distributes keys uniformly. The hash table size is 20. After hashing of how many keys will the probability that any new key hashed collides with an existing one exceed 0.5.
 A 5 B 6 C 7 D 10
Engineering-Mathematics       Probability
Question 28 Explanation:
Total spaces = 20, no. of entries = 1
Probability of collision for each entry = 1/20
After inserting X values then probability becomes 1/2
i.e., (1/20)X = 1/2
X = b
 Question 29
When searching for the key value 60 in a binary search tree, nodes containing the key values 10, 20, 40, 50, 70 80, 90 are traversed, not necessarily in the order given. How many different orders are possible in which these key values can occur on the search path from the root to the node containing the value 60?
 A 35 B 64 C 128 D 5040
Data-Structures       Binary-Trees
Question 29 Explanation:
To find 60 in BST then there are two possible set i.e., greater than 60 and smaller than 60.
Smaller values 90, 80 and 70 are visited in order
i.e., 7!/(4!3!) = 35
 Question 30
 A Leaves the queue Q unchanged B Reverses the order of the elements in the queue Q C Deletes the element at the front of the queue Q and inserts it at the rear keeping the other elements in the same order D Empties the queue Q
Data-Structures       Queues
Question 30 Explanation:
As a recursive call, and removing from front while inserting from end, that means that element will be deleted at last and will be inserted 1st in the new queue. And like that it will continue till first call execute insert (Q, i) function. So the queue is in reverse order.
 Question 31
 A 9 B 8 C 7 D 6
Programming       C-Programming
Question 31 Explanation:
The algorithm is for finding the maximum sum of the monotonically increasing continuous sequence of positive numbers in the array. So, output will be 3+4 = 7.
 Question 32
 A 15 B 25 C 30 D 150
Data-Structures       Stacks
Question 32 Explanation:
push 5
push 2
pop 2
pop 5
5 * 2 = 10
push 10
push 3
push 3
push 2
pop 2
pop 3
3 + 2 = 5
push 5
pop 5
pop 3
3 * 5 = 15
push 15
pop 15
pop 10
10 + 15 = 25
push 25
Finally, pop 25 and print it.
 Question 33
 A Call by value : i = 70, j = 10; Call by reference : i = 60, j = 70 B Call by value : i = 50, j = 60; Call by reference : i = 50, j = 70 C Call by value : i = 10, j = 70; Call by reference : i = 100, j = 60 D Call by value : i = 100, j = 60; Call by reference : i = 10, j = 70
Programming       Parameter-Passing
Question 33 Explanation:
Call by value:
'i' is a global variable. Then in main( ) a local variable 'j' as integer declared, i.e., j=60 and global varible 'i' is initialized to 50 by i=50.
Now procedure f called and values of 'i' and 'j' are passed to it, i.e., in f(i, j)→f(x, y).
Content of memory location of 'i' (here 50) is copied to memory location of x (which is different from i) and content of memory location of 'j' (here 60) is copied to memory location of y. Then in f(x, y) i=100 changes the global i to 100, x=10 changes the local x from 50 to 10 and y=y+i means y=60+100=160. Now, when return back to main, i & j will be 100 & 60 respectively.
Call by reference:
Now procedure f called and passed reference of i and j to it, i.e., in f(i,j)→f(x,y). x and y are pointing to same memory location of i and j respectively. So i=100 changes the global i to 100 and x=10 means as well as global i=10 (as the i being passed is the global variable and x and i share the same address).
y=y+i means y=60+10=70 and this changes the value of j also to as j and y have the same addresses. Now when return to main, i and j will be 10 and 70.
 Question 34
 A x = 10, y = 10 B x = 20, y = 10 C x = 10, y = 20 D x = 20, y = 20
Programming       Variable Binding
Question 34 Explanation:
Since the value of x is based on static scoping, in the procedure g( ), print i will directly look into the global scope and find i=10 which was previously set by main( ) and since the value of y is based on dynamic scope, procedure g( ) will first look into the function whicg called it, i.e., procedure f( ) which has a local i=20, which will be taken and 20 will be printed.
 Question 35
 A Early, late, decrease, increase B Late, early, increase, decrease C Late, early, decrease, increase D Early, late, increase, decrease
Programming       Variable Binding
Question 35 Explanation:
Static scoping can do early binding (during compile time). Early binding increases efficiency.
Dynamic scoping requires late binding (during execution time).
Late binding decreases efficiency as this binding needs to be done at run time.
 Question 36

The floating point unit of a processor using a design D takes 2t cycles compared to t cycles taken by the fixed point unit. There are two more design suggestions D1 and D2. D1 uses 30% more cycles for fixed point unit but 30% less cycles for floating point unit as compared to design D. D2 uses 40% less cycles for fixed point unit but 10% more cycles for floating point unit as compared to design D. For a given program which has 80% fixed point operations and 20% floating point operations, which of the following ordering reflects the relative performances of three designs? (Di > Dj denotes that Di is faster than Dj)

 A D1 > D > D2 B D2 > D > D1 C D > D2 > D1 D D > D1 > D2
Computer-Organization       Clock-Frequency
Question 36 Explanation:
T = 0.8 × time taken in fixed point + 0.2 × time taken in floating point
D = 0.8 × t + 0.2 × 2t = 1.2t
D1 = 0.8 × 1.3t + 0.2 × 0.7 × 2t = 1.32t
D2 = 0.8 × 0.6t + 0.2 × 1.1 × 2t = 0.92t
⇒ D2 > D > D1
 Question 37
 A 3 B 18 C 20 D 30
Computer-Organization       Cache
Question 37 Explanation: So memory block 18 is not in the cache.
 Question 38
 A 1 B a’ + b’ + c’ + d’ C a’ + b + c’ + d’ D a’ + b’ + c + d’
Digital-Logic-Design       Boolean-Functions
Question 38 Explanation:
(a⋅b)⋅c + (a'⋅c)⋅d + (b⋅c)⋅d + a⋅d
= ((ab)'c)' + ((a'c)'d)' + ((bc)'d)' + (ad)'
= ab + c' + a'c + d' + bc + d' + a' + d'
= ab + c' + a'c + bc + a' + d'
= ab + c' + bc + a' + d'
= b + c' + bc + a' + d'
= a' + b + c' + d'
 Question 39
 A (i) and (iii) B (i) and (iv) C (ii) and (iii) D (ii) and (iv) E Only (i)
Computer-Organization       Data-Dependencies
Question 39 Explanation:
(i) Is true. Both Loc and R2 are getting the value of R1 in LHS and RHS.
(ii) Is false. Because R2 gets the correct data in both LHS and RHS, but Loc is not updated in RHS.
(iii) Is false. Because R2 is writing last in LHS, but not in RHS.
(iv) Is true. The first write to Loc in LHS is useless as it is overwritten by the next write.
 Question 40
 A 0110 B 1011 C 1101 D 1111
Digital-Logic-Design       Shift-register
Question 40 Explanation: Question 41
 A 7 B 10 C 13 D 14
Computer-Organization       Machine-Instructions
Question 41 Explanation:
In the given question, there are 7 instructions each of which takes 1 clock cycle to complete.
If an instruction is in execution phase then any other instructions cannot be in the execution phase. So, atleast 7 clock cycles will be taken.
Now, it is given that between two instructions latency or delay should be there based on their operation.
[Image_Link] 1) Load R1, Loc1;
Takes 1 clock cycle, simply loading R1 on Loc1.
2) Load R2, Loc2;
Takes 1 clock cycle.
3) Add R1, R2, R3;
Hence, this instruction is using the result of R1 and R2, i.e., result of Instruction 1 and Instruction 2. As Instruction 1 is load operation and Instruction 3 is ALU operation. So, there should be a delay of 1 clock cycle between Instruction 1 and Instruction 3, which is already there due to Instruction 2.
As Instruction 2 is load operation and Instruction 3 is ALU operation. So, there should be a delay of 1 clock cycle between Instruction 2 and Instruction 3.
4) Dec R2;
This instruction is dependent on Instruction 2 and there should be delay of one clock cycle between Instruction 2 and Instruction 4. As Instruction 2 is load and Instruction 4 is ALU, which is already there due to Instruction 2.
5) Dec R1;
This instruction is dependent on Instruction 3.
As Instruction 3 is ALU and Instruction 5 is also ALU, so a delay of 2 clock cycles should be there between them of which 1 clock cycle is already there due to Instruction 4. So, one clock delay between Instruction 4 and Instruction 5.
6) MPY R1, R2, R3;
This instruction uses the result of Instruction 5, as both Instruction 5 and Instruction 6 are ALU. So, there should be delay of 2 clock cycles.
7) Store R3, Loc3;
This instruction is dependent on Instruction 6 which is ALU and Instruction 7 is stored. So, there should be a delay of 2 clock cycles between them.
 Question 42
(C012.25)H – (10111001110.101)B =
 A
(135103.412)O
(564411.412)O
(564411.205)O
(135103.205)O
Digital-Logic-Design       Number-Systems
Question 42 Explanation:
(C012.25)H – (10111001110.101)B
= 1100000000010010.00100101 - 0000010111001110.10100000
= 1011101001000011.10000101
= 1011101000011.100001010
= (135103.412)O
 Question 43
 A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3
Computer-Networks       Error-Correction
Question 43 Explanation:
For correction:
The no. of bits that can be corrected is Question 44
 A 300.5 ms B 255.5 ms C 255.0 ms D 300.0 ms
Computer-Organization       Secondary-Storage
Question 44 Explanation:
Avg. time to transfer = Avg. seek time + Avg. rotational delay + Data transfer time
For Avg. seek time:
Given that, time to move between successive tracks is 1ms.
Time to move from track1 to track1 = 0ms
Time to move from track1 to track2 = 1ms
Time to move from track1 to track3 = 2ms
⋮ Time to move from track1 to track500 = 499ms
∴ Avg. seek time = 0+1+2+...+499/500 = 249.5ms
Avg. rotational delay:
600 rotations in 60sec.
One rotation takes 60/600 s = 100ms ∴ Avg. rotational delay = 100/2 = 50ms
Data transfer time:
In one rotation, we can read data on one complete track
= 100 × 500 = 50,000B data is read in one complete rotation
One complete rotation takes 100ms.
100ms → 50,000B
250B → 100/50000 × 250 = 0.5ms
∴ Avg. time to transfer = 249.5 × 50 + 0.5 = 300ms
 Question 45
 A 0000 B 0111 C 1111 D None of these
Digital-Logic-Design       Circuits-Output
Question 45 Explanation: Since the problem is in the link T which is connected as input to NOR gate. So to check link T we have to make the output dependent on T by deactivating link M. So to deactivate link M, the output at M should be 0, as link M is input to NOR gate. So, to output at M as 0,
X1 = 1
X2 = 1
X3 = 1
X4 = 0
∴ None of the given option is correct.
 Question 46
 A G1 : No y appears before any x G2 : Every x is followed by at least one y B G1 : No y appears before any x G2 : No x appears before any y C G1 : No y appears after any x G2 : Every x is followed by at least one y D G1 : No y appears after any x G2 : Every y is followed by at least one x
Theory-of-Computation        Grammar
Question 46 Explanation:
Regular expression for G1:
(x + z)* + (x + z)* y(y + z)*
Regular expression for G2:
(y + z + xy)*
 Question 47
 A All strings of x and y B All strings of x and y which have either even number of x and even number of y or odd number or x and odd number of y C All strings of x and y which have equal number of x and y D All strings of x and y with either even number of x and odd number of y or odd number of x and even number of y
Theory-of-Computation       Finite-Automata
Question 47 Explanation:
Just simulate the running of the DFA on all options - A, B and C are false and D is true.
 Question 48
 A (i), (ii), and (iii) B (ii), (v), and (vi) C (ii), (iii), and (iv) D (i), (iii), and (iv)
Theory-of-Computation       Grammar
Question 48 Explanation:
(ii) xxyyxy
S → xB
S → xxBB
S → xxyB
S → xxyyS
S → xxyyxB
S → xxyyxy
(iii) xyxy
S → xB
S → xyS
S → xyxB
S → xyxy
(iv) yxxy
S → yA
S → yxS
S → yxxB
S → yxxy
 Question 49
 A G1 is context-free but not regular and G2 is regular B G2 is context-free but not regular and G1 is regular C Both G1 and G2 are regular D Both G1 and G2 are context-free but neither of them is regular
Theory-of-Computation       Identify-Class-Language
Question 49 Explanation:
Regular grammar is either right linear or left linear. A left linear grammar is one in which there is atmost 1 non-termial on the right side of any production, and it appears at the left most position.
Similarly, in right linear grammar, non-terminal appears at the right most position.
Here we can write a right linear grammar for G1 as
S → w(E
E → id)S
S → o
(w-while, o-other)
So, L(G1) is regular.
Now for G2 also we can write a right linear grammar:
S → w(E
E → id)S
E → id+E
E → id*E
S → o
making its language regular.
So, both G1 and G2 have an equivalent regular grammar. But given in the question both these grammars are neither right linear nor left linear and hence not a regular grammar. So, (D) must be the answer.
 Question 50
 A B C D Theory-of-Computation       Finite-Automata
Question 50 Explanation:
String 'aca' is accepted by both FA, P and Q. And FA in option (A) also accepts string 'aa' and none of the other option FA accepts 'aa'. Hence option (A) is the answer.
 Question 51
 A 0.45 B 0.63 C 0.84 D 0.95
Question 51 Explanation: The probability or reliability that the product will work for a defined period of time without failure is given by Question 53
 A 3/4 B 2/3 C 1/2 D 3/8
Question 53 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 54
 A T1, T2, T8, T10 B T1, T3, T8, T10 C T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10 D T1, T4, T5, T7, T8, T10
Question 54 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 55
 A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5
Question 55 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 56
 A signal (mutex), wait (wrt), signal (wrt), wait (mutex) B signal (wrt), signal (mutex), wait (mutex), wait (wrt) C wait (wrt), signal (mutex), wait (mutex), signal (wrt) D signal (mutex), wait (mutex), signal (mutex), wait (mutex)
Operating-Systems        Process-Synchronization
Question 56 Explanation:
S1: If readcount is 1, i.e., some reader is reading, DOWN on wrt so that no writer can write.
S2: After readcount has been updated, UP on mutex.
S3: DOWN on mutex to update readcount.
S4: If readcount is zero, i.e., no reader is reading, UP on wrt to allow some writer to write.
 Question 57

In a multi-user operating system on an average, 20 requests are made to use a particular resource per hour. The arrival of requests follows a Poisson distribution. The probability that either one, three or five requests are made in 45 minutes is given by :

 A 6.9 × 106 × e-20 B 1.02 × 106 × e-20 C 6.9 × 103 × e-20 D 1.02 × 103 × e-20
Engineering-Mathematics       Probability
Question 57 Explanation:
q0 request in 1 hour. So we can expect 15 requests in 45 minutes.
So, λ=15 Question 58

A demand paging system takes 100 time units to service a page fault and 300 time units to replace a dirty page. Memory access time is 1 time unit. The probability of a page fault is p. In case of a page fault, the probability of page being dirty is also p. It is observed that the average access time is 3 time units. Then the value of p is

 A 0.194 B 0.233 C 0.514 D 0.981 E 0.0194
Operating-Systems       Virtual Memory
Question 58 Explanation:
Given page fault service time = 100
(if the page is not dirty)
Page fault service time = 300
(if there is dirty page)
Probability of page fault = P
Probability pf page being dirty = P
So, total page fault service time
= P(300) + (1 - P)100
= 300P + 100 - 100P
= 300P + 100
Now given,
Effective average memory access time = 3
So,
3 = m + P × total page fault service time
= 1 + P(200P + 100)
= 1+ 200P2 + 100P
⇒ 200P2 + 100P - 2 = 0
⇒ P = 0.0194
 Question 59
 A "b1 c1" B "b2 c3" C "b1 c2" D "b1 c3"
Question 59 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 60
 A B C D Computer-Networks       Routing
Question 60 Explanation:
Distance from F to F is 0 which eliminates option (C).
Using distance vector routing protocol, F→D→B yeilds distance as 20 which eliminates option (B) and (D).
 Question 61
 A 1000010111 and Differential Manchester respectively B 0111101000 and Differential Manchester respectively C 1000010111 and Integral Manchester respectively D 0111101000 and Integral Manchester respectively
Computer-Networks       Manchester-Encoding
Question 61 Explanation:
Both (A) & (B) is correct, it is just the convention which determine the correct answer.
As per IEEE (B) is correct.
As per GE Thomas (A) is correct.
As we usually follow IEEE thus (B) is correct.
 Question 62

Let us consider a statistical time division multiplexing of packets. The number of sources is 10. In a time unit, a source transmits a packet of 1000 bits. The number of sources sending data for the first 20 time units is 6, 9, 3, 7, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 6, 1, 10, 7, 5, 8, 3, 6, 2, 9, 5 respectively. The output capacity of multiplexer is 5000 bits per time unit. Then the average number of backlogged of packets per time unit during the given period is

 A 5 B 4.45 C 3.45 D 0
Computer-Networks       Access-Control-Methods
Question 62 Explanation:
The capacity of multiplexer is 5000 bits per time unit. This means there are 5 packets per unit time since each source transmits a packet of 1000 bits in a unit time.
If the no. of packets transmitted is larger than 5 then the extra packets are backlogged. This means gets added to the next number and further backlog is calculated. Average no. of backlogged packets = 89/20 = 4.45
 Question 63

A group of 15 routers are interconnected in a centralized complete binary tree with a router at each tree node. Router j communicates with router j by sending a message to the root of the tree. The root then sends the message back down to router j. The mean number of hops per message, assuming all possible router pairs are equally likely is

 A 3 B 4.26 C 4.53 D 5.26
Computer-Networks       Routing
Question 63 Explanation:
Step 1:
Message goes up from sender to root,
Average hops message goes to root
= (3×8) + (2×4) + (1×2) + (0×1)/15
= 2.267
Here, (3×8) represents 3 hops and 8 routers for bottom most level and so on.
Step 2:
Similarly, average hops when message comes down
= (3×8) + (2×4) + (1×2) + (0×1)/15
= 2.267
So, Total hops = 2×2.267 = 4.53
 Question 64
A broadcast channel has 10 nodes and total capacity of 10 Mbps. It uses polling for medium access. Once a node finishes transmission, there is a polling delay of 80 μs to poll the next node. Whenever a node is polled, it is allowed to transmit a maximum of 1000 bytes. The maximum throughput of the broadcast channel is
 A 1 Mbps B 100/11 Mbps C 10 Mbps D 100 Mbps
Computer-Networks       Access-Control-Methods
Question 64 Explanation: Question 65

Consider a selection of the form σA≤100(r), where r is a relation with 1000 tuples. Assume that the attribute values for A among the tuples are uniformly distributed in the interval [0, 500]. Which one of the following options is the best estimate of the number of tuples returned by the given selection query ?

 A 50 B 100 C 150 D 200
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
Question 65 Explanation:
σA≤100(r), r has 1000 tuples.
Values for A among the tuples are uniformly distributed in the interval [0, 500]. This can be split to 5 mutually exclusive and exhaustive intervals of same width of 100 ([0-100], [101-200], [201-300], [301-400], [401-500], 0 makes the first interval larger - this must be typ0 in this question) and we can assume all of them have same number of values due to uniform distribution. So no. of tuples with A value in first interval should be,
Total no. of tuples/5 = 1000/5 = 200
 Question 66
 A B C D Database-Management-System       Transactions
Question 66 Explanation:
For strict 2PL the requirements are,
i) Exclusive locks should be released after the commit.
ii) No locking can be done after the first unlock.
(A) Wrong because to write x you need Exclusive Lock.
(B) Wrong because violating the 1st requirement.
(C) Correct.
(D) Wrong because violating the 1st requirement.
 Question 67
 A 0 B 1 C 2 D 3
Database-Management-System       Multi-valued-Dependencies
Question 67 Explanation:
The rule is
if A→B then A→→B holds but reverseis not true.
So,
(i) False.
(ii) True.
(iii) False.
(iv) True.
 Question 68
 A Пc-name (σbal < 0 (σb-city = “Agra” branch ⋈ account) ⋈ depositor) B Пc-name (σb-city = “Agra”branch ⋈ (σbal < 0 account ⋈ depositor)) C Пc-name (σb-city = “Agra” branch ⋈ σb-city = “Agra” ⋀ bal < 0 account) ⋈ depositor) D Пc-name (σb-city = “Agra” ⋀ bal < 0 account ⋈ depositor))
Database-Management-System       Relational-Algebra
Question 68 Explanation:
Answer should be (A) and not (B), because we are doing a join between two massive tables whereas in (A) we are doing join between relatively smaller table and larger one and the output that this inner table gives (which is smaller in comparision to join that we are doing in (B)) is used for join with depositor table with the selection condition.
Options (C) and (D) are invalid as there is no b-city column in a-schema.
 Question 69
 A IMAP-(i), FTP-(ii), HTTP-(iii), DNS-(iv), POP3-(v) B FTP-(i), POP3-(ii), SMTP-(iii), HTTP-(iv), IMAP-(v) C POP3-(i), SMTP-(ii), DNS-(iii), IMAP-(iv), HTTP-(v) D SMTP-(i), HTTP-(ii), IMAP-(iii), DNS-(iv), FTP-(v)
Computer-Networks       Network-Protocols
Question 69 Explanation:
(ii) HTTP as it does not depend on state of device or operating system.
(v) FTP needs two ports, 20 for data and 21 for control.
Hence, only (D) matches.
 Question 70
 A zdp B fpq C qwA D oze
Computer-Networks       Network-Security
Question 70 Explanation:
You are given the following four bytes:
10100011 00110111 11101001 10101011
So, in total we have 32 bits. And for base 64we need 6 digits of binary no. to represent one digit of base 64 no.
So lets padd 4 bits on RHS, so that total digits will become 36 and we can separate then as group of 6 digits each. Now, the longest substring will be from checking option is 'fpq'.
 Question 71
 A B C D Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expressions
Question 71 Explanation:
Every string of given regular expression must contain the substring aa or bb.
But option (B), (C), (D) accepts aba, which do not contain aa or bb as substring.
Hence, (A) is correct.
 Question 72 A B C D Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expressions
Question 72 Explanation:
(B) It accepts 'ab' which is not in the language.
(C) It is not accepting 'abb' which is in language.
(D) It is not accepting 'aa' and 'bb' which is in language.
 Question 73 A (a(ba)* + b(ab)*)(a + b)+ B (a(ba)* + b(ab)*)*(a + b)* C (a(ba)* (a + bb) + b(ab)*(b + aa))(a + b)* D (a(ba)* (a + bb) + b(ab)*(b + aa))(a + b)+
Theory-of-Computation       Regular-Expressions
Question 73 Explanation:
R = (a+b)* (aa+bb) (a+b)*
Having NFA: Equivalent DFA: Question 74 A 0.545 B 0.6 C 0.857 D 0.961
Computer-Networks       Token-Ring-Topology
Question 74 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 75 A 0.545 B 0.655 C 0.9375 D 0.961
Computer-Networks       Token Ring Topology
Question 75 Explanation:
Note: Out of syllabus.
 Question 76
 A B C D Engineering-Mathematics       Combinatorics
Question 76 Explanation:
Let c=1, x0=1
Then,
x1 = c ⋅ (x0)2 - 2 = 1 ⋅ (1)2 - 2 = -1
x2 = c ⋅ (x1)2 - 2 = 1 ⋅ (-1)2 - 2 = -1
So, the value converges to -1, which is equal to Exactly, only (B) is answer. As all the term of x converges to -1.
 Question 77
 A (i) 0nly B (i) and (ii) only C (i), (ii) and (iii) only D (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
Engineering-Mathematics       Combinatorics
Question 77 Explanation:
For the series to converge the limit: 'n' tends to infinity of (xn+1 / xn) should be <1.
From the recurrence we should have c(xn)2 - xn - 2 < 0
For all the above values of c we have above equation as negative.
 Question 78   [Image_Link]https://pyq.ravindrababuravula.com/2-4-10/'>       Digital-Logic-Design       K-Map
Question 78 Explanation:
Just draw the K-map from the given expression,
ad' + a'c' + bc'd

Hence, option (A) matches.
 Question 79
 A c’d’+ ad’ + abc’ + (ac)’d B (ac)’ + c’d’ + ad’ + abc’d C (ac)’ + ad’ + abc’ + c’d D b’c’d’ + acd’ + (ac)’ + abc’
Digital-Logic-Design       K-Map
Question 79 Explanation:
Let's check for option (C):
a'c' + ad' + abc' + c'd Not equivalent to the K-map, we get in previous question.
 Question 80
 A Pa and Pb are adjacent to each other with respect to their x-coordinate B Either Pa or Pb has the largest or the smallest y-coordinate among all the points C The difference between x-coordinates Pa and Pb is minimum D None of the above
Engineering-Mathematics       Lines-and-Curves
Question 80 Explanation:
Draw the line from the first to third point, and look at whether the middle point is above, at or below it. If the middle point is on the line, all slopes are equal. If the middle point is above the line, then the slope from the first to the second point is the highest. If the middle point is below the line, then the slope from the middle point to the second is highest. In any case, you can find a greater slope betweem two adjacent points.
 Question 81
 A Θ(n) B Θ(nlogn) C Θ(nlog2n) D Θ(n2)
Engineering-Mathematics       Lines-and-Curves
Question 81 Explanation: For gradient to be maximum x2-x1 should be minimum. So, sort the points (in Θ(n logn) time) according to n coordinate and find the minimum difference between them (in Θ(n) time).
∴ Complexity = Θ(n logn + n) = Θ(n logn)
 Question 82
 A 11, 139, 170, 178, 181, 184, 201, 265 B 10, 138, 170, 178, 181, 185, 201, 265 C 10, 139, 169, 178, 181, 184, 201, 265 D 10, 138, 170, 178, 181, 185, 200, 265
Operating-Systems       Disk-Scheduling
Question 82 Explanation: Hence, correct option is (B).
 Question 83
 A 9 B 10 C 11 D 12
Operating-Systems       Disk-Scheduling
Question 83 Explanation:
We need two conditions to satisfy:
1) The alternating direction with SSTF policy.
2) Maximize the no. of requests.
The first condition can be satisfied by not having two requests in the equal distance from the current location. As shown below, we must not have request located in the circle marked positions.
Now to maximize the no. of request we need the requests to be located as compact as possible, which can be done by just placing the request in the next position after the circle marked position in particular direction (the direction in which the head need to move).
Now to satisfy the 1st criteria: Seek length sequence for maximum cardinality and alternating head movements:
→ 1, 3, 7, 15, ...
→ or, 21-1, 22-1, 23-1, 24-1, ...
→ We have 2048 tracks so, maximum swing (seek length) can be 2047.
→ Which corresponds to a seek length of 211-1 in the 11th service.
 Question 84
 A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4
Database-Management-System       B+-Trees
Question 84 Explanation:
It is B+ Tree.
After inserting K15 we get, Now, we insert K25, which gives So, we see in the final tree only (K20, K25) is present. Hence, 1 (Answer).
 Question 85
 A Statements (i) and (ii) are true B Statements (ii) and (iii) are true C Statements (iii) and (i) are true D All the statements are false
Database-Management-System       B+-Trees
Question 85 Explanation:
The B+ tree in previous question we get was, Now after deleting 50 we get B+ tree as Hence, correct statement is only (i) & (ii).
There are 85 questions to complete.