Normal Forms

Question 1

A relation Empdtl is defined with attributes empcode (unique), name, street, city, state and pincode. For any pincode, there is only one city and state. Also, for any given street, city and state, there is just one pincode. In normalization terms, Empdtl is a relation in

1NF only
2NF and hence also in 1NF
3NF and hence also in 2NF and 1NF
BCNF and hence also in 3NF, 2NF an 1NF
       Database Management System       Normal Forms       Gate 2004-IT
Question 1 Explanation: 
It is in 2NF. For 2NF all non-prime attribute should be fully functionally dependent on key.
Here key is empcode and contains only one attribute, hence no partial dependency. But there is transitive dependency in this.
Pincode → city, state, so it is not in 3NF.
Question 2
An instance of a relational scheme R(A, B, C) has distinct values for attribute A. Can you conclude that A is a candidate key for R?  
       Database Management System       normal Forms       Gate-1994
Question 2 Explanation: 
Because FD's are defined on the schema itself, not the instance. So, based on the state of the instance we cannot say what holds for schema (there can be many instances for R).
There are 2 questions to complete.